最有看点的互联网乐天堂娱乐门户

最有看点的互联网乐天堂娱乐门户
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浅谈印度尼西亚小微乐天堂娱乐发展经验

近几年小微乐天堂娱乐问题制造了不少新闻。比如印度贫困地区常有小额贷款人被冷酷无情的高利贷者逼到自杀,这种故事多少给小微乐天堂娱乐行业带来不良影响。因此批评者猛烈批评小微乐天堂娱乐参与者,因为他们没有让贫困人口脱贫,反而给他们带来无穷债务,自己却从强加于借款人身上的高利率获利颇丰。

此外,有关乐天堂娱乐机构也因监管不力受到了不少批评。

但是小微乐天堂娱乐并非全是消极意义。诸如印度尼西亚的国家有大量农村人口,而这个国家就成功通过小微乐天堂娱乐帮助不少贫困人口改善了生活水平。那么,在小微乐天堂娱乐方面,印度尼西亚到底有什么经验之谈呢?

近日由毕马威发布的一项报告显示,印尼当局采取了一系列具体措施,保证小微贷款向借贷人谨慎放贷,避免贪得无厌的放贷人剥削客户。以下是本次报告的几点核心内容:

即使在最贫穷的地区也需要基本规章

如果当局在追踪黑市放贷人上取得进展,可能就能避免很多不必要的压力。如印度尼西亚乐天堂娱乐当局Otoritas Jasa Keuanga (OJK)等监管者并没有对未监管资金流量指标(MFI)有深刻认识。有数据显示,印尼的MFI数据为40000到600000,跨度极大。

不过毕马威表示,印尼政府已经决定开始追踪MFI数据并总结出整体情况,为相关机构开发法律框架提供基础。

毕马威指出,印尼商业借贷企业、银行及其他小微乐天堂娱乐机构其实也曾尝试满足小微借贷需求,但严格的规则、过高的门槛相结合,导致黑市放贷人和贪得无厌的放高利贷者泛滥。因为这些人放贷不需要证明文件(身份证),所以也更加灵活。

OJK称,印度尼西亚目前仅有40000家银行及分支机构,而这样的市场规模导致远在偏远海岛上的13000个居民根本没有机会享受到银行服务。

报告强调,处于经济金字塔底端的印度尼西亚人有大约2.03亿(81.5%)。但和其他人一样,这些生活贫困的人同样需要接触乐天堂娱乐服务的渠道,找到改善生活、改善社区的机会。印度尼西亚有9600万人一天生活费不足1.9美元,没有工资,也没有足够的抵押物,或是被认为贷款风险过高,或是居住地过于偏远,接触不到传统乐天堂娱乐服务。

所以,小微放贷者(尤其是印度尼西亚银行下的机构)和社会创业企业纷纷看中了这一新兴市场,他们希望利用手机快速的普及率来发展正确的数字经济平台。

乐天堂娱乐素养不足也应受到责备

在这份报告中毕马威还指出,低收入群体乐天堂娱乐素养不足,低层次放贷人把贷款利润推到极高,导致扩大的乐天堂娱乐服务渠道成效不高,许多低收入个人并没有理解利率含义就被兜售了周分期付款计划。

印度尼西亚中小企业及低收入借款人不仅需要小微信贷贷款渠道,也需要行业乐天堂娱乐知识,从而产生积极影响。2014年OIK一份调查显示,需要贷款时,仅有7%的中小企业去银行贷款。

无分支银行监管计划

2013年5月初,印度尼西亚中央银行开始了一项局部试验,决定在正式发布规章前,将部分银行业务实行外包。此次试验包括5家商业银行、3家印度尼西亚最大的手机网路运营商、8个省(南苏门答腊省、北苏门答腊省、西爪哇省、中爪哇省、东爪哇省、巴厘岛、东加里曼丹省、南苏拉威西省)。

这项试验计划于2015年全面开展。这种名为Laku Pandai(即无分支银行)的产品让个人成为代理。然后这些借贷方可以招聘个人、法人作为代理,借此扩展自己的银行活动,为无银行账户用户或非银行用户提供小额储蓄、借贷。不过,这些借贷方必须向银行注册,满足最低要求,如过去两年收入的可靠来源。

印尼通过这些代理发行小微储蓄、小微信贷、小微保险产品。

至今为止,这一试验的反响还算不错。 印度尼西亚中央银行法人秘书Hari Siaga称,2016年印度尼西亚有84500名Laku Pandai(代理,现在计划发展到135000名,而且会让他们使用BRILink手机应用。去年BRI有9800万笔转账记录,比2015年增长了4倍。

印度尼西亚对小微乐天堂娱乐的管理办法能为其他国家提供一些经验。最终,监管者必须引导小微乐天堂娱乐者与借款人,实现社区脱贫的最终目标。

Microfinance disasters have made the news in recent years and the industry has drawn some flak for being unregulated. Indonesia has had relative success. What lessons can we draw from them?

Stories of microloan borrowers in impoverished parts of India driven to suicide by relentless loansharks have tainted the industry somewhat. In response, critics have lashed out at microfinanciers. Instead of empowering communities and lifting them out of poverty, they have introduced overindebtedness and have profited greatly from the high interest rates imposed on borrowers.

But microfinance does not need to have negative connotations. Certain countries with large rural populations, such as Indonesia, have helped improved the lives of poorer communities.

In a KPMG report on Indonesia’s microfinance, it noted that authorities have taken concrete steps in ensuring microloans are distributed prudently to borrowers and to prevent unscrupulous lenders from exploiting their clients.

Regulation is essential even in the poorest areas

Perhaps unnecessary stress could be avoided if authorities made headway in tracking black market lenders. Indonesia is no stranger to this phenomenon. Regulators like the Indonesian financial authority Otoritas Jasa Keuanga (OJK) does not have a firm understanding of the non-regulated MFI landscape, and estimates of the numbers of MFIs vary hugely from 40,000 to 600,000. It is determined to track the number of MFIs in an effort to map the landscape and develop a legal framework for these institutions, said KPMG.

KPMG noted that commercial lenders, banks and other microfinance institutions have tried to meet demand for micro-lending, but a combination of strict regulations and too-high thresholds have resulted in growth of black-market lenders and unscrupulous loan sharks, which don’t require documentation (ID cards) and are more mobile.

These lenders offer loans at high interest rates and often collect daily payments from customers.

But there are still too few banks to meet demand – with only 40,000 bank branches in Indonesia, it is still insufficient to reach out to the furthest communities living in the country’s 13,000 islands, said OJK.

The report highlighted that 203 million, or 81.5% of Indonesians are at the bottom of the economic pyramid. Like everyone else, those living in poverty need access to financial services in order to find opportunities to improve their lives and their communities. Without having salaries and sufficient collateral, the 96 million Indonesians living on less than US$1.90 a day are considered too risky for loans or live in locations too remote for formal financial services.

Microlenders, particularly those operating under Indonesian banks, as well as social enterprise startups, are also targeting these communities through their high mobile penetration rates and are developing the right digital platforms to reach out to them, said KPMG.

Poor financial literacy to blame too

KPMG also noted there is a lack of financial literacy among low-income groups, which can undermine gains made by widening the access to financial services, due to the propensity of lower tier lenders to push debt at excessive margins; many low income individuals do not comprehend the notion of interest rates, and are sold based on weekly instalment schedules.

SMEs and low income borrowers need access to both loans and education for Indonesia’s microcredit industry to make a positive impact. An OJK 2014 survey found only 7 percent of SMEs go to banks when they need to borrow.

Branchless Banking regulations

In early May 2013, central bank Bank Indonesia commenced a limited pilot, to test the outsourcing of some banking operations to agents prior to introduction of formal regulations. The scope of the pilot involved five commercial banks, three of Indonesia’s largest mobile network operators and eight provinces (South Sumatra, North Sumatra, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Bali, East Kalimantan and South Sulawesi).

The pilot programme went into full gear in 2015. Laku Pandai, or ‘Branchless Banking’, enables individuals to become agents. These lenders can extend their banking activities by recruiting individuals and legal entities as agents, who will provide micro-saving and loan services for unbanked and underbanked people. They must be registered with the banks, and are to meet minimum requirements such as having a viable source of income for the last two years. Micro-savings, micro-credit and micro-insurance products are dispensed through the agents.

So far, response has been positive. In a report by the Jakarta Post, Bank Rakyat Indonesia corporate secretary Hari Siaga said that it aimed to have 135,000 Laku Pandai agents, an increase from 84,500 in 2016, and to see them use its BRILink mobile app. BRI recorded 98 million transactions throughout last year, rising more than fourfold from 2015.

Indonesia’s approach to microfinance could serve as a lesson to others. Ultimately, regulators have to be the ones to guide microfinanciers and borrowers alike to achieve the eventual goal of lifting communities out of poverty.


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